Edwin Arlington Robinson

Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869 - 1935)

Edwin Arlington Robinson was a poet of transition. He lived at the time following the Civil War when America was rebuilding and changing rapidly and when the dominant values of the country seemed to be growing increasingly materialistic. Robinson’s poetry was transitional, evaluating the present by using traditional forms and by including elements of transcendentalism and puritanism.

Robinson spent his childhood in a small town in Maine, a town which furnished him a setting for many of his poems as well as models for his characters. His father was a prosperous merchant; his mother had been a schoolteacher. The parents were primarily interested in their two older sons and tended to ignore Edwin, though they recognized his exceptional intelligence. While fond of his family, Edwin felt himself an outsider among them, as he also felt alienated from the society of his town.

Robinson studied at Harvard from 1891 to 1893 and afterward returned to Maine to stay for three years. Miserable and lonely most of the time, he moved to New York in 1895. His first volume of poems had been published while he was at home in Maine; in 1897 a second volume appeared. But he prospered neither as a poet nor as a businessman and ended by working as a checker of loads of shale during the building of the New York subway. In earning his living as a writer Robinson experienced the same difficulties as Hawthorne had fifty years before and was forced to the same humiliating expedients. Hawthorne checked sacks of coal as they were loaded in Boston Harbor; Robinson checked shale. Franklin Pierce, a grateful President, had rewarded his friend and campaign biographer, Hawthorne, with a post in the Sales Customs House and then with a more lucrative post as consul in Liverpool. Just so another president of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, found Robinson’s poetry impressive and helped him get a clerkship in the New York Customs House, where he worked until 1910. He sometimes may have encountered the ghost of Melville, who had spent the last lonely years of his life there, haunted by the feeling that he had failed as a writer.

Suddenly, with the poetic revival that preceded World War I, Robinson began to play a major role as a poet. After going his own way quietly for so many years, he became widely read and exerted a strong influence on other poets, notably Robert Frost. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for poetry three times in the 1920’s, a record exceeded only by Frost, who received the prize four times in all.

The core of Robinson’s philosophy is the belief that man’s highest duty is to develop his best attributes as fully as possible. Success is measured by the intensity and integrity of his struggle; failure consists only in a lack of effort. Robinson was most interested in people who had either failed spiritually, or who seemed failures to the world but had really succeeded in gaining spiritual wisdom. Despite his apparent pessimism he refused to subscribe to a naturalistic view of life. Being by nature introspective and conscious of psychological depths, he was acutely aware of the spiritual side of man and relatively uninterested in the surface aspects of man’s life as a social creature.

Robinson’s best known statement on the hollowness of conventional success is the lyric poem, “Richard Cory”. Although everyone respects and envies Cory, one night he fires a bullet through his head. We are left asking why, and Robinson does not give an answer. We can only suppose that what other people think and feel is not as important as what a person himself believes. Since Cory knows his life is worthless in spite of his “success,” he puts an end to it.

In the other poems we see Robinson’s compassion and humor. They are differently blended in each poem. “Miniver Cheevy” is marked by a broad, hyperbolic humor. The character whom the poem displays is a figure of fun. However, the humor is wry; we can laugh at the drunkard who drinks to escape, only as long as we ignore his plight. There is more than a him of self-portraiture in Miniver’s deluded enchantment with a past that never was. The poem suggests, in a comic way, what Eugene O’Neill portrays in The Iceman Cometh; the survival value for the unsuccessful of delusion plus drink; for those who, like Cory, face up to the truth of things, a bullet may be inevitable.

We feel an even greater sympathy when we read “Mr. Flood’s Party”. For here is an old man, now completely friendless, his only company a jug of liquor. He is so lonely he talks to himself; so friendless that he has nothing left in life. Nevertheless, the situation Robinson describes to us is never mawkish. We sympathize, but we smile at the same time. Robinson uses mock-heroic comparisons and mock solemnity here with a delicate effect absent in “Miniver Cheevy.” He invites our sympathy; he does not command it. When he compares Mr. Flood with the great medieval warrior Roland, blowing his horn to summon his comrades in an epic battle, he expects us to remember that splendid as Roland was in that battle, he died without his companions ever answering the call of his horn. Not the least of Robinson’s skill lies in another technique; his ability to manage rhythms and sounds to convey the meaning and mooed of the poem. A good example is the perfectly modulated concluding lines of “Mr. Flood’s Party.” Robinson could have ended the poem with emphasis; he chooses instead to soften the rhythms and to diminish the ending with two dependent clauses. Our voice drops naturally and then levels off as we finish reading the poem, the old man’s horn echoes and dies, unanswered.

Poems By Edwin Arlington Robinson

Miscellaneous

A Happy Man (2 Comments »)
A Song at Shannon’s (No Comments »)
Aaron Stark (3 Comments »)
Afterthoughts (No Comments »)
Alma Mater (No Comments »)
Amaryllis (1 Comment »)
An Evangelist’s Wife (No Comments »)
An Island (No Comments »)
An Old Story (3 Comments »)
Another Dark Lady (1 Comment »)
Archibald’s Example (1 Comment »)
As a World Would Have It (No Comments »)
Atherton’s Gambit (No Comments »)
Aunt Imogen (No Comments »)
Avon’s Harvest (No Comments »)
Ballad by the Fire (No Comments »)
Ballad of a Ship (No Comments »)
Ballad of Broken Flutes (1 Comment »)
Ballad of Dead Friends (4 Comments »)
Ben Jonson Entertains a Man from Stratford (No Comments »)
Ben Trovato (No Comments »)
Bewick Finzer (1 Comment »)
Bokardo (No Comments »)
Bon Voyage (No Comments »)
Boston (No Comments »)
But for the Grace of God (No Comments »)
Calvary (2 Comments »)
Calverly’s (No Comments »)
Captain Craig (1 Comment »)
Caput Mortuum (1 Comment »)
Cassandra (1 Comment »)
Charles Carville’s Eyes (No Comments »)
Clavering (No Comments »)
Cliff Klingenhagen (3 Comments »)
Cortège (No Comments »)
Credo (No Comments »)
Dear Friends (1 Comment »)
Demos (No Comments »)
Discovery (No Comments »)
Doctor of Billiards (No Comments »)
Erasmus (No Comments »)
Eros Turannos (3 Comments »)
Exit (No Comments »)
Firelight (1 Comment »)
Flammonde (No Comments »)
Fleming Helphenstine (No Comments »)
For a Dead Lady (1 Comment »)
For Ariva (No Comments »)
For Some Poems by Matthew Arnold (No Comments »)
Fragment (No Comments »)
George Crabbe (No Comments »)
Haunted House (5 Comments »)
Her Eyes (No Comments »)
Hillcrest (No Comments »)
Horace to Leuconoë (No Comments »)
How Annandale Went Out (2 Comments »)
Inferential (No Comments »)
Isaac and Archibald (No Comments »)
Job the Rejected (No Comments »)
John Brown (No Comments »)
John Evereldown (No Comments »)
John Gorham (2 Comments »)
Karma (2 Comments »)
L’envoy (No Comments »)
Lancelot (No Comments »)
Late Summer (No Comments »)
Lazarus (No Comments »)
Leffingwell (No Comments »)
Leonora (No Comments »)
Lingard and the Stars (No Comments »)
Lisette and Eileen (No Comments »)
Llewellyn and the Tree (No Comments »)
London Bridge (No Comments »)
Lost Anchors (No Comments »)
Luke Havergal (12 Comments »)
Many Are Called (No Comments »)
Maya (No Comments »)
Merlin (No Comments »)
Miniver Cheevy (12 Comments »)
Modernities (No Comments »)
Momus (1 Comment »)
Monadnock through the Trees (No Comments »)
Mr Flood’s Party (15 Comments »)
Neighbors (No Comments »)
New England (No Comments »)
Nimmo (No Comments »)
Octaves (No Comments »)
Old King Cole (No Comments »)
Old Trails (No Comments »)
On the Night of a Friend’s Wedding (No Comments »)
On the Way (No Comments »)
Partnership (No Comments »)
Pasa Thalassa Thalassa (No Comments »)
Peace on Earth (No Comments »)
Rahel to Varnhagen (No Comments »)
Recalled (No Comments »)
Rembrandt to Rembrandt (No Comments »)
Reuben Bright (3 Comments »)
Richard Cory (78 Comments »)
Sainte-Nitouche (No Comments »)
Shadrach O’Leary (1 Comment »)
Siege Perilous (No Comments »)
Sonnet (No Comments »)
Souvenir (No Comments »)
Stafford’s Cabin (No Comments »)
Supremacy (No Comments »)
Tact (1 Comment »)
Tasker Norcross (No Comments »)
The Altar (No Comments »)
The Book of Annandale (No Comments »)
The Burning Book (No Comments »)
The Children of the Night (1 Comment »)
The Chorus of Old Men in Aegus (No Comments »)
The Clerks (No Comments »)
The Clinging Vine (No Comments »)
The Companion (No Comments »)
The Corridor (1 Comment »)
The Dark Hills (1 Comment »)
The Dark House (4 Comments »)
The Dead Village (No Comments »)
The False Gods (No Comments »)
The Field of Glory (No Comments »)
The Flying Dutchman (No Comments »)
The Garden (No Comments »)
The Gift of God (No Comments »)
The Growth of Lorraine (No Comments »)
The House on the Hill (6 Comments »)
The Klondike (No Comments »)
The Long Race (No Comments »)
The Man Against the Sky (No Comments »)
The Master (No Comments »)
The Mill (2 Comments »)
The New Tenants (No Comments »)
The Old King’s New Jester (1 Comment »)
The Pilot (No Comments »)
The Pity of the Leaves (No Comments »)
The Poor Relation (No Comments »)
The Rat (No Comments »)
The Return of Morgan and Fingal (No Comments »)
The Revealer (No Comments »)
The Sage (No Comments »)
The Story Of The Ashes And The Flame (1 Comment »)
The Sunken Crown (No Comments »)
The Tavern (1 Comment »)
The Three Taverns (No Comments »)
The Torrent (No Comments »)
The Town Down by the River (No Comments »)
The Tree In Pamela’s Garden (1 Comment »)
The Unforgiven (No Comments »)
The Valley of the Shadow (No Comments »)
The Voice of Age (No Comments »)
The Wandering Jew (No Comments »)
The Whip (No Comments »)
The White Lights (No Comments »)
The Wilderness (No Comments »)
The Wise Brothers (No Comments »)
The Woman and the Wife (No Comments »)
The World (2 Comments »)
Theophilus (No Comments »)
Thomas Hood (No Comments »)
Three Quatrains (No Comments »)
Twilight Song (No Comments »)
Two Gardens in Linndale (No Comments »)
Two Men (1 Comment »)
Two Octaves (No Comments »)
Two Quatrains (No Comments »)
Two Sonnets (No Comments »)
Uncle Ananias (No Comments »)
Vain Gratuities (No Comments »)
Variations of Greek Themes (No Comments »)
Verlaine (No Comments »)
Veteran Sirens (No Comments »)
Vickery’s Mountain (No Comments »)
Villanelle of Change (No Comments »)
Walt Whitman (1 Comment »)
Why He Was There (1 Comment »)
Zola (No Comments »)
Analysis, meaning and summary of Edwin Arlington Robinson's poem Zola

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