In Effective Supervision, Robert J. Marzano, Tony Frontier, and David Livingston show school and district-level administrators how to set the priorities and support the practices that will help all teachers become expert teachers. Their five-part framework is based on what research tells us about how expertise develops. When these five conditions are attended to in a systematic way, teachers do improve their skills:
* A well-articulated knowledge base for teaching
* Opportunities for teachers to practice specific strategies or behaviors and to receive feedback
* Opportunities for teachers to observe and discuss expertise
* Clear criteria for success and help constructing professional growth and development plans
* Recognition of the different stages of development progressing toward expertise.
The focus is on developing a collegial atmosphere in which teachers can freely share effective practices with each other, observe one another’s classrooms, and receive focused feedback on their teaching strategies. The constructive dynamics of this approach always keep in sight the aim of enhancing students’ well-being and achievement. As the authors note, “The ultimate criterion for expert performance in the classroom is student achievement. Anything else misses the point.”