Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the US population by measurement of urinary monohydroxy metabolites [An article from: Environmental Research]
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We developed a gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/ID-HRMS) method for measuring 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites representing seven parent PAHs in 3mL of urine at low parts-per-trillion levels. PAH levels were determined in urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 from approximately 2400 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and, for the first time, reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the US population. Using this GC/ID-HRMS method, we found detectable concentrations for monohydroxy metabolite isomers of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and benz[a]anthracene. Some monohydroxy metabolite isomers of benzo[c]phenanthrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene exhibited low detection frequencies that did not allow for geometric mean calculations. Our study results enabled us to establish a reference range for the targeted PAHs in the general US population.
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