This new edition is a major contribution to botanical and ecological literature. It provides comprehensive coverage of the major vegetation types of North America, from the arctic tundra of Alaska to the tropical forests of Central America. Each chapter describes the composition, architecture, environment, and conservation status of each ecosystem. In addition, information is included on the abiotic environment, paleoecology, productivity, nutrient cycling, autecological behavior of dominant species, environmental issues, management problems, the role of natural disturbance, and critical areas for future research. This new edition has additional chapters on freshwater wetlands, coastal marine wetlands, temperate Mexico, the Caribbean, and the Hawaiian Islands. Every chapter has been thoroughly updated and now includes information on habitat loss and restoration-preservation programs. This is an outstanding new edition of a well-received text and it is essential reading for students and researchers in plant science, ecology, and conservation.